Scars in Time


, , , ,

If too many time travelers try to go to the same place at the same time – how do you manage that? You know, besides a big special with a bunch of aging actors reprising roles they swore they’d never play again? This is head-canon, but I think you scar up time – and nobody goes there at all.


“We’re here! Wait .. What?” Photo by Luka Siemionov on


In my mind, where there are several fictional projects involving time travel swirling around, time travelers have a hard time meeting each other. Because too many time travelers cause a scar in time, and then those coordinates are unreachable for anyone outside of that natural timeline.


You cannot, for example, go witness the birth of Jesus. Because one time traveling entity wanted to prove the reality of Jesus, while another was using it as a chrono-tourism draw, while a third just wanted to study the first few years of the Roman Empire and it emerged from the Republic, while another was measuring salt levels in the Dead Sea over history. These, and several more ruined it for all of each other.


This will never happen – and not just because of copyrights.

No one can time travel back to the Nativity. No one ever has, and no one ever will because too many will someday try.

Don’t get hung up on my using the Nativity as an example. There are a lot of events that could end up scarred like this.

What follows is the way it works in some of my fiction – most of which has yet to be written. You get to learn about it here, free of cost (or context) as a reward for reading this far into an amateur blog about time travel.

Every point in space/time resonates at a certain, distinct frequency. No – stop. If you argue this will take forever. Just accept for a while until we get to the bottom of the blog. Physical time travel, then, can be accomplished by changing the frequency of an object to match the frequency of a different point in space/time.

One or two such objects can be inserted into the new coordinates without disturbing the existing harmonics. But those harmonics are premised on the objects that were always there. Changing the mass and energy values eventually forces a change in the frequency to accommodate – and that can’t happen.

So past a certain threshold (which varies) (perhaps by plot needs) the existing harmonics reject all new matter and energy trying to integrate into the coordinates.

Even if the time travelers come from disparate times and places themselves, they would all be arriving at the same time in the same place – and thereby would not arrive at all. History cannot abide a big audience.

Under this version – none of the various Flashes and related Speedsters get to Nora Allen. And that’s OK.


Nora Allen always dies – because physics

As I imagine it, this is invariably discovered early in the process when the mad scientists researching time travel (they are inherently mad) discover that it is impossible to do short, experimental hops.

This is because they have been trying to do short experimental hops over the course of several weeks, and assuming the failure was due to some other process. No, Professor Spacetime, you cannot beam your poor bunny across the laboratory to an hour ago because you have been trying to do that very thing for weeks, and the universe rejects multiple simultaneous atemporal versions of Mr. FooFoo.

The time and place a time machine is invented is almost always time scarred. Often the timeline of the inventor is as well. Sometimes on purpose. Time-scarring your own timeline, as well as those of your loved ones discourages awkward conversations with yourself, but also time-traveling rivals taking hostages, or trying to kill you before whenever.

So the key to time travel, the is to find some time and place no other time traveler has gone – and hope that none of them ever – ever- think of going there too. Because then you might never get there.

But if you do – you can be assured that you are the only time traveler present (or at least one of only a few).

So how do you have a convention of time travelers, or a time war?

You’ll have to hand-wave over the unobtanium until you find a make-believe work-around to my make-believe side-effect of completely fictional physics. Let me know how you did that.





Some quick thoughts on the new-new-new Doctor Who


, , , , ,

The 11th season of the the revived Doctor Who changed just about everything, show-runner, cast, and focus. And while it’s more popular than ever (this is true, haters) I still have some problems with it.

But those problems may not be what you think.


We’re halfway through the season and I’m finally forming thoughts about this? Yes. Sometimes it worth it just to shut up and watch. After all, they blew up the old team and rebuilt, and we know they are going to take a few episodes to find a groove.

I just turned off from episode 6, and while some of the things that bothered me from Episode 1 have evaporated, a few remain.  

It is important to remember that I have always liked this show, and I still like it. What follows should be taken as friendly advice.


Talk softly and wave around a sonic screwdriver

I have to turn on Closed Captioning to watch this show.

Let me preface this by noting that I enjoy Jodie Whittaker as an actress, and generally her portrayal of the Doctor so far. A new Doctor always faces into fierce winds, even without the gender issues. But I cannot understand a third of what she says.

Whittaker’s Yorkshire accent is thicker, to American ears, than any of her predecessors. That, however, I could likely acclimate to. Her real problem is volume.

All of her predecessors, except maybe Peter Davidson, had solid baritone voices that could boom through the chaos when required. Whittaker’s thin alto can’t get there, and worse, she tends to mumble when her previous incarnations might have shouted.

She’s not the first Doctor to mumble, but she has yet to shout (other than “Run!” or the like) in a way that commands the room. Maybe that’s not in this incarnation. The 5th was not much of a yeller either, except when he was trying to get the attention of his assorted quarreling companions. Which bring us to…


Aren’t we all so interesting…

As the Days of the the Companions Turn

Friends! They’re called friends now. Because companion has become a loaded word? OK. In truth, the Master was right all along – they are really more like pets. That’s not my problem, though.

The 12th (actually 15th) Doctor has more than two companions for the first time in the modern era. And they are all well portrayed, reasonably fleshed out, real people from Sheffield with different perspectives on life, the universe and travelling with a madwoman in a box.

And let’s be clear, this is an improvement over the different incarnations of Mary Sue [yes – even Jenna Coleman’s Clara] the good Doctor has been not-really-dating over the past ten seasons. Notable that the least Mary-Sue of them, Donna Noble, is easily the most popular companion, especially among women.

Let’s be clear about something else: I generally like all these new companions friends, and the actors who portray them. They come across as real people in a way this series rarely gets.

In establishing these characters – who all knew each other prior to stumbling onto the Doctor in Episode one – the teeters at the edge of sliding into soap-opera about their lives.

It is a mark of the new Who that all the companions have been relatively normal humans from contemporary Earth. And they come home at the end of every story arc and resume their lives in and around their time in the TARDIS.


Typical excitement in Sheffield.

In the old series they came from all over the place, and rarely saw home again until their time-travelling was at an end (usually meaning when the actor quit). I personally see that as kind of a loss.

There are any number of shows that deal with the stress adventuring and the absences it requires puts upon the lives of well meaning people and their families. Namely, every show of any quality that deals with cops or special agents of whatever sort bounces this theme around. That often makes for compelling drama.

But that is not why we watch Doctor Who.

It has been my experience that the less time the Doctor spends in contemporary England, the better the show. The whole point of Doctor Who is getting away from the here and now and playing with possibilities and situations a realistic show about armed agents cannot touch.

We can’t do that if we spend significant parts of the show keeping up with the gang in Sheffield.


I am Tzim-Sha! Totally different than a bush-league Cyberman!

She has yet to face a serious villain

The new show-runners seem determined not to trot out the old rogues gallery of villains. They want their new Doctor to face some new enemies. Good for them.

Thus far, though all the enemies she has faced have either been one-dimensional (trophy hunter from space, racist asshole from the far future) or turned out to be good or neutral parties that have been misunderstood.  

The new Doctor is quieter – and not just her voice. She doesn’t have the trash talking swagger of the boys before her. She doesn’t rely on her legend either. This is not a good woman who goes to war.

This Doctor has mainly defeated her opponents by stealing their equipment and altering it so that it backfires on them. She is a klepto who excels at sabotage.

The softer approach is not the complaint here. It is the softer villains.

Now, the first episode of a new Doctor usually has a disposable villain. But they have yet to top the interstellar trophy hunter [from Ep 1] who sticks teeth in its skin. Seriously, the most menacing foe they faced so far were the racist cops in 1950’s Alabama.


One of these men is an escaped criminal from the far future. The other is actually menacing and dangerous.

[Sidebar: A racist from the future? That’s the best they could do? There were plenty of local racists to make that point for them. The main villain should have had some other unrelated motivation. Future Nazi came across more as lazy and heavy-handed than well-intentioned and relevant.]


So more time at the edge of the universe facing more fearsome foes over higher stakes, and less time worrying about making Nan’s birthday whatever in Sheffield. I suspect I am just going to have to accept the Closed Captioning.

[All images in this post from the BBC]

Time Travel- A History can be considered Canon


, , , , , , , , , ,

It is a hard thing to write non-fiction about time travel and be taken seriously. And by tackling this subject, James Gleik has given a gift to those of us who obsess over this weird, newish corner of the collective imagination. He has given us Canon, nearly scripture, and a lucid one at that.

Yes, the Time Travel, A History  is that good, not only as lucid non-fiction about science (if which there is always a shortage) but a serious book about time travel itself, which is a rare treasure indeed.


The author stares at a camera and summarizes his premise within a video at Big Think:

“Before the late Victorian era, it was practically impossible to for people to conceive of time travel. And I say it was impossible because they didn’t.”

The problem with time travel as a subject for non-fiction is that it is both new and terribly, mind-meltingly strange. Real scientists can’t touch it, except to briefly dismiss it as fantasy on their way to talk about “serious cosmology”. [We should not here that they are Not Wrong]. Speculating at length about the How of time travel is a fast-track to the crank file, where no grant ever flows.

Consequently, time travel non-fiction has been relegated to a sidebar in a book about time (or worse, a history of time from sundials to the atomic clock, a book that has many forms, all just as interesting), or encyclopedic endeavors by Geeks to list and categorize time travel fiction (which includes this blog).

Gleik has written a history of time travel as a concept, a trope, and specific thing we think and imagine about, and has done so with the same readable, cogent, accessible prose that put most of his other work on short lists for the Pulitzer prize.

I exaggerate not; behold his bio.

And he has done so with fewer Doctor Who references than you might think.

Long before the BBC back-benchers slapped together a children’s TV show that got way out of hand, HG Wells wrote the first time travel fiction (of any size or consequence) where the protagonist physically moves through time on purpose.

[ I prefer the 1960 version to any other adaptation, even thought this trailer, product of its time, lays it on thick.]

The success of that work became the embryo for what would become the “scientific novel, and soon after science fiction. The time travel trope would then be expanded upon by Hugo Gernsback (mostly as an editor, but he is the one who first described the “grandfather paradox.”) and later Asimov and Heinlein (whose contributions, Gleik fairly notes, reek of their time and their intended audience) and then a cascading expansion of other authors as science fiction became something adults could read in open daylight.


H.G. Wells staring at you from the past.

Wells did it first, and Gleik argues that is because he was the right writer at the right time. By the mid-19th century, humanity, for the first time, was seeing the world change substantially within their lifetime, and thereby developed a desire, and in fact a need for thinking about the future in a more serious way.

Previous fantasies about people moving into the future, whether by prolonged sleep of wandering amiss inside a fairy mound, would have them emerge to discover only the names had changed.

Looking the opposite direction, the 19th century saw some of the first serious efforts at scientific history, because we had better tools to investigate with. This brought about a new question: “what can we learn from the past to help us better predict the future?”  Previously, those sort of inquiries had been limited to politics – and even then, people rarely listened to the answers.

While Gleik touches on time as the physical force that physicists argue about (you can make a serious case that time does not exist) he spends a good deal of the book examining how we think about time, and how that has evolved. And yes, he also references that one scene from Doctor Who.
In between  Wells expounding on the fourth dimension to Moffat’s madman in a box waving it off as Timey Wimey we now have some sober non-fiction to reference.  Now granted, I am his target audience, but if you are the sort that reads down this far in an amateur blog about time travel, you definitely need to get this book.

It is now Canon.

Fermi’s Paradox Has No Good Answers


, , , , , ,

If the universe is so full of life, meaning billions of planets with billions of life forms each, which seems statistically probable, then why haven’t we made contact with any of our interstellar neighbors?

The answer you make up will deeply inform your fictional future. The answer we have yet to discover casts a dark shadow across our actual future.


“Two possibilities exist: either we are alone in the Universe or we are not. Both are equally terrifying.” – Arthur C. Clarke

There are three questions you have to answer to satisfaction in order to work out the future:

  1.       What is the answer to Fermi’s paradox?
  2.       How do we resolve the inevitable Robot Uprising?
  3.       Is it possible to go Faster than Light.

This is about question #1.

Fermi’s paradox is not a formal theorem, and despite “common knowledge”  has never been proven or disproven. It is a question to which we have no answer. Like Why do people still watch Gotham?

It does not spring from any formal scientific paper. Like Murphy’s Law, is is basically folklore. Enrico Fermi and a few colleagues were at lunch. Fermi has the New Yorker open to a cartoon about aliens [the one below – I think]  and he wondered out loud “Where are they?”



This began a long conversation the wandered into speculative mathematical probabilities (The Big Bang Theory stereotypes are based on real people) about the likelihood of aliens, and even before Hubble, the gang concluded that there should or at least could be other alien civilizations, so why haven’t we met any?

[Scientific American has the names and dates if you care]

The farther we creep out into space, both physically and electronically, the more puzzling this becomes.


The answers basically fall into three groups:

  1. Space and time are really vast and we haven’t been looking that far for that long.
  2. Aliens are too weird or too advanced for us to communicate with.
  3. We are alone.

Most people who think and write about this lump group 1&2, dividing the answers into They exist/ They do not exist sub-groups. However, the facts behind the vastness of space vs the puniness of our efforts do not eliminate either possibility.

The Search of Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has only been going on in a serious way since the 1970’s and even then inconsistently funded (it hasn’t seen federal money since 1986). This gives us a less than 50 light year search range, within which we have been selective due to constraints on resources. Pick any star you see in the night sky. Chances are, we haven’t seriously listened to it.


From this article.

At that pace, the answer could remain forever a mystery until flying saucers actually land on our yards.

Let’s dispense quickly with the possible answers that make no sense:

If aliens are already among us, we’d know. The government isn’t that smart of over that long of time. We are not in a damn zoo. There are a host of crackpot websites that go to great length to claim the opposite, and this is not one of them.

If they visited in the prehistoric past, looked around, saw nothing of concern and left, we would never know, so that answer is basically useless – even if true.

In the other category, intelligent life cannot be rare, much less singular across the heavens. Hell, it isn’t even that rare on Earth. Dolphins use language. Octopi use tools. Ravens and apes use both. And that’s one snapshot of four distinct ecosystems across about a billion years of complex lifeforms, any one of which could have created some intelligent species which we have not uncovered.  We’ll come back to this.

If you want a complete rundown of all the possible answers, I refer you to my sources. There are several good summaries, and I don’t mean to repeat them.


For my relatively optimistic space opera fiction I chose Nobody Listens to Radio But Us. More advanced aliens have developed some sort of quantum communication that works instantaneously across distance, and they no longer modulate anything i the EM spectrum because that takes too long. Radio is the galactic equivalent of smoke signals.

We encounter them physically before we ever make remote contact.

(How does the quantum communicator work? You handwave over the unobtanium.)

Several other answers can be made to work just as readily. If you are making up a future history, this is a required chore. Unless you decide there are no aliens, which can fit the facts, but presents an existential darkness problem.


If you read the sources they talk about the Filter, the as-yet-undetermined factor that prevents an explosion of space-faring civilizations. There are two versions: we are one of the rare species to pass it OR we have yet to hit it.

It may be that while life is common, complex life is rare, and us having spines and fingers and the like make us buy far the exception among the stars, and this is why we are lonely. That still fits within known facts, but I don’t buy it.

The human experience has been this: We think we’re unique. We look around to prove we are unique. We find out we are not special. We move the line until we feel special again.

I was told in grade school we are the only species with language and tools. You Tube can tell you differently in one or two search terms. And this requires no space-based observations, just perspective adjustment.


The answer that I am afraid is not fiction is that this barrier is real, and we are upon it. Earth is beginning a Sixth Great Extinction, and the variable is us, and our super-special technology.

Between global warming, the plastic layer, and just our callous regard for sustainability, we have shit in our own nest and set it on fire. You can shake your fist in denial, and I’m going to point to the rest of the world and say “scoreboard”.

It may be that highly-advanced technological civilizations kill ecosystems; that by the time you can scoot out into space, you have already doomed yourselves.

Time and space are vast, our efforts to find the neighbors are feeble, perhaps futile, leaving the answer to Fermi’s lunchtime distraction a long way off. I rather hope we will be around long enough as a species to discover it.

But that’s only a hope.



SETI doc

A lot of folks have given this thought. The first thing they note is that the Fermi Paradox is a remarkably strong argument. You can quibble about the speed of alien spacecraft, and whether they can move at 1 percent of the speed of light or 10 percent of the speed of light. It doesn’t matter. You can argue about how long it would take for a new star colony to spawn colonies of its own. It still doesn’t matter. Any halfway reasonable assumption about how fast colonization could take place still ends up with time scales that are profoundly shorter than the age of the Galaxy. It’s like having a heated discussion about whether Spanish ships of the 16th century could heave along at two knots or twenty. Either way they could speedily colonize the Americas

One possible explanation is that interstellar travel is just too costly. Consider how expensive it would be for us to populate another star system. Imagine sending a small rocket to Alpha Centauri, one that’s the size of the Mayflower (180 tons, with 102 pilgrims on board). Your intention is to get this modest interstellar ark to our nearest stellar neighbor in 50 years, which requires about 150 billion billion joules of energy.

Wait But Why lays it all out with lots of pictures.

Scientific American disbelieves.

University of Oregon takes a deeper dive. – good listicle

Sixth Mass Extinction

Eulogy for The Master


, , , , , , , ,

We live in the dystopian universe where Alan Rickman did not get a chance to play The Master in a major motion picture version of Dr Who. This is but one of many, perhaps countless injustices done to one of the Doctor’s best villains, from his first appearance to his supposed demise at the most recent series finale.

Spoilers of course. This is time travel, after all, and the end might meet the beginning right in the middle.


Most villains believe that they are actually the hero at least in their own story. The Master is too smart for that. He knows he’s the villain. That’s the only reason he exists, and the fact that he knows this only makes his arc more tragic.



From the Master’s first appearance (played by Robert Delgado) way back in the Pertwee era, he was conceived to be everything the Doctor was, except evil.  And polite – the Master, in his first (and last) incarnation observed all the social protocols that the Doctor, even the relatively civil 3rd, frequently ignored.

The Doctor through a dark and slightly warped mirror, and this made him the perfect villain. Too perfect, maybe. Because our poor Master, even from the first, seemed to have no other driving motive other than to be a nemesis to his counterpart renegade Timelord.

The Daleks commit terrible crimes for a purpose. They care about winning. When well written, they are not likely to beat themselves.

The Master, in contrast, is prone to self sabotage, particularly to plots so insane they could not possibly succeed even without the Doctor’s opposition. His potential to succeed, though, inevitably forces the Doctor to play his mad game, and that is the true objective.

There are exceptions, of course. This is Doctor Who – there will always be exceptions.  Before we get to that, some brief biography may be in order. For brevity and sanity, we are holding to televised material. Audio plays and novels have made extensive and often contradictory use of the character, and we have enough nonsense with just the TV show. More complete biographies can be found in Sources.

We first meet the Master {Delgado}  in Terror of the Autons, where, by the end of the serial, he abandons his own mad scheme and throws in with the Doctor to oppose the scheme of his former ally the Nestene Consciousness. This would establish the pattern, not only of plotting, but of a relatively sane Master.

That’s right, middle-aged actors sword fighting slowly was considered fine children’s programming in the 1970’s. Now, of you want to see that, you have to watch HBO.

The Master would appear in every episode of that season, and in at least a couple of episodes in every season thereafter.

We learn later that this Master is the 12th incarnation. While clearly a sociopath, he is not the homicidal maniac other incarnations will become. He does not chew the scenery with his evil. He kills people because they are in the way, but he does not (usually) go out of his way to kill people. That would be inefficient and undignified. And then he died.

They had been writing the episode that killed off the Master when the actor himself was killed in a car crash.

And then the Master came back.

The Fourth Doctor faced a badly mangled, half dead master for a couple of adventures, until through convoluted events, a “regenerated” Master (Anthony Ainley) took shape. This Master 12.5 would be the form until the end of the original series.


Ainley had a reputation for chewing scenery long before he wore the Master’s black suits, and no one in Doctor Who would discourage that. This, and a series of poor plots, left this Master little regarded, a manic caricature of his former self, despite a relatively restrained performance in Survival – the last serial of the Old Who – which ended in his capture.


Oh, yes, Doctor, it gets much , much worse. BWAHAHAHAHA!

Eric Roberts as Master 12.7 in the TV Movie was the worst part in a movie with a lot of bad parts. We cheered when he fell into the Eye of Harmony because it got Roberts and his horrific costume off the damn screen.


This is actually my favorite Master. 

Somewhere off screen, during the Time Wars, the Master was given twelve new regenerations. Master 13 (we think) (Derek Jacobi) appeared for half an episode before becoming Master 14 (Sims) who became the batshit crazy nemesis of the 10th Doctor.


“What do you mean there’s no more scenery to chew?!

Some of Ten’s best story arcs involved his renewed nemesis, including a long story arc where the Master’s plan worked, and he became the dog who caught the bus. He didn’t kill the Doctor, of course, but shrunk him and kept him around in a bird cage. Then he kept escalating until finally his own started to turn on him. Because the dog has no idea what to do with the bus – he just feels compelled to chase it.

This Master is young and hip, like the Doctor he torments, but where the 10th Doctor is shackled by regret, this Master is unfettered and unhinged.

While we’re here, let me spout some head-canon: the “sound of drums” is, in my mind, peculiar to the newly regenerated doctor, and the 12th Master of the older series, including his insane zombie antecedents do not hear any such thing. Yes – he said he heard it since childhood – but the memories of sane people are unreliable, much less this guy.

The 11th Doctor managed to wander around for a thousand years or so without encountering his perfect villain. I don’t know why.


A fresh face on a very old joke.

The 12th (who is really the 13th, because reasons) encountered Missy, presumably Master 15.  Missy has been the main villain in two of his four season-long arcs, and appeared outside of those arcs as well. This Master, like the Doctor she torments, is relatively mature, a grown up who might know what to do with the bus, but knows better than to actually catch it. Much closer to the 12th Master.

If you haven’t seen the most recent season finale, go watch it. We’ll wait.

The 13th Master believes his purpose is to destroy the Doctor, but the 14th knows better. The Master cannot be the hero of her own story. She’s too perfect as the villain.

There can be a Doctor without a Master, but there cannot be a Master without a Doctor – at least, not the way the show treats this character. That half-existence, I propose, is the underlying source of all his/her/its madness.

Image credits: the BBC – or sites that lifted them from the BBC.


You tube history of the Master:

Robots vs Your Crappy Job


, , , , , , , ,

If robots take all of our jobs, how are we expected to make a living? Are we all going to be idle and free to pursue our heart’s desire? Or will automation create a permanent class of rich owners, and a permanent underclass of jobless serfs? The answer is not anywhere near that dramatic.

In the economic struggle between robots and humans, always bet on the humans.

join robot uprising

As technology grinds forward, particularly artificial intelligence, the ability to automate tasks will grow to an increasingly large percentage of the current jobs held by us puny meatbags. This raises alarm among some futurists. How can we have a society without jobs?

[This is different from the Inevitable Robot Uprising.]

Perhaps, they go on, we will resort to some Basic Minimum Income, so that those displaced by whining servos and blinky lights can still continue to eat and breed. Annual global economic output divided by current populations comes out to around $8000 US per head – if you were wondering. That’s actually a raise for a lot of the developed world, but pretty hard to live on in the US. And that’s ALL of global GDP. People proposing this sort of thing are actually throwing around $6000 a year. Even with food, housing, a few outfits and healthcare covered gratis, that does not make for a standard of living to aspire to.

It gets worse: any survey of history will reveal that resources tend to accumulate at the top, over time. The rich have always found ways to grow richer. Only war and catastrophe have successfully forced any meaningful redistribution of wealth. We’re due for some war and or catastrophe, but it will not do to depend upon it.

Happily, that’s not the way it works at all. Robots are not not going to take our jobs. Well not most of them. The aggregate effect of automation redefines jobs rather than eliminate them.

When ATMs started popping up in the 1970s, it is was widely feared that this would lead to the end of the line for bank tellers. Forty five years later, bank tellers are still a thing. While individual bank branches went down from an average of 20 tellers each to merely 13 tellers, the lower costs allowed banks to expand the number of branches. The overall number of tellers has still declined 10-20% depending on how you frame the data, but they are all still around. The metal boxes outside allowed tellers to concentrate on solving problems rather than routine transactions. Also, there remains a percentage of customers who will never trust those newfangled things out there.

In most sectors the aggregate effect of automation is improved productivity which, in general, increases the number of available jobs. Far more people are employed making, selling, driving, parking or insuring automobiles then ever made their livelihoods directly from horses.

(This is actually a misleading example. The real victim of the automobile was the train. But even there, overall employment expanded.)

Automation does not eliminate jobs so much as it changes them. It is that change and the pace of that change that stresses society.


If your job is boring, then your job is at risk of being automated. OK. This would then, in theory, free you up to do something the bots can’t do. Any society is actually riddled with jobs that need to be done.  I can look around my house and identify a dozen things that need to be done right now – and so can you. Every civilization has this problem. The trick is making a living at it.

While robots excel at boring, they struggle with artistic, social or empathic skills, or any task where the variables change constantly.  Basically, things we generally want to do anyway.  

So the trick to making a living in the 21st century is adaptability. It’s not enough to learn. We have to learn how to learn, because there are robots that write blogs. Not well – but they do it.

They key to outpacing the robots is an education system and ethos that is easy to access, flexible and lifelong. And there is no downside to any of that, even without automatons clanking at our heels.

Once humans learn how to learn, they tend to keep doing that, given an opportunity.



What determines vulnerability to automation, experts say, is not so much whether the work concerned is manual or white-collar but whether or not it is routine. Machines can already do many forms of routine manual labour, and are now able to perform some routine cognitive tasks too. As a result, says Andrew Ng, a highly trained and specialised radiologist may now be in greater danger of being replaced by a machine than his own executive assistant: “She does so many different things that I don’t see a machine being able to automate everything she does any time soon.”



Figures published by the Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis show that in America, employment in non-routine cognitive and non-routine manual jobs has grown steadily since the 1980s, whereas employment in routine jobs has been broadly flat (see chart).


 Automating a particular task, so that it can be done more quickly or cheaply, increases the demand for human workers to do the other tasks around it that have not been automated.


But despite the wide range of views expressed, pretty much everyone agrees on the prescription: that companies and governments will need to make it easier for workers to acquire new skills and switch jobs as needed. That would provide the best defence in the event that the pessimists are right and the impact of artificial intelligence proves to be more rapid and more dramatic than the optimists expect.

Even outside the AI community, there is a broad consensus that technological progress, and artificial intelligence in particular, will require big changes in the way education is delivered, just as the Industrial Revolution did in the 19th century. As factory jobs overtook agricultural ones, literacy and numeracy became much more important. Employers realised that more educated workers were more productive, but were reluctant to train them themselves because they might defect to another employer. That prompted the introduction of universal state education on a factory model, with schools supplying workers with the right qualifications to work in factories. Industrialisation thus transformed both the need for education and offered a model for providing it. The rise of artificial intelligence could well do the same again, making it necessary to transform educational practices and, with adaptive learning, offering a way of doing so.


In a paper published in 2013, James Heckman and Tim Kautz of America’s National Bureau of Economic Research argue for more emphasis on “character skills” such as perseverance, sociability and curiosity, which are highly valued by employers and correlate closely with employees’ ability to adapt to new situations and acquire new skills. Character is a skill, not a trait, they say, and schemes that teach it are both lasting and cost-effective.

[Financial Times – JANUARY 12, 2017

by: Richard Waters

High quality global journalism requires investment. Please share this article with others using the link below, do not cut & paste the article. See our T&Cs and Copyright Policy for more detail. Email to buy additional rights.


The variables that will affect the rate of adoption are huge. In a new report on automation this week, McKinsey estimates that half of all the tasks people perform at work could be automated using technologies that have already been proven. But this estimate gives no clue about how long it will take.

[Who the fuck is McKinsey? The high quality global journalists do not say.]

By Denis PombriantNovember 17, 2016

New jobs arise when new capabilities, technical and otherwise, innovate them into existence. There weren’t digital marketers until there was marketing automation, for instance. Heck, computer programmers had no existence until computers. At one point a computer was just someone who was very good at math performing calculations all day.

November 7, 2016 / Winter 2016 / Issue 85

by Vinnie Mirchandani

I examined people at work in more than 50 settings: accounting firms and banks, the battlefront and digital agencies, the oil patch and restaurants, R&D labs and shop floors, warehouses and wineries. And it is clear that the old divisions among professions and trades have dissolved. We’re no longer white- or blue-collar workers. We’re all silicon-collar workers, because technology is reshaping all our workplaces.


Luther Simjian, a prolific inventor, convinced some New York City banks to try out his Bankograph, the predecessor of the modern-day ATM, in 1960. Almost six decades later, although mobile banking has taken off and ATMs are ubiquitous, our downtowns and strip malls are still studded with bank branches staffed by human tellers. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimated the U.S. still had 520,000 teller jobs in 2014, and a gradual decline of only 40,000 positions is projected over the next decade. Put another way, virtually every bank customer has the ability and means to conduct automated banking business, but tens of millions still choose to do so in person.


Economic history is rife with examples of inventions that have significant ripples and unintended consequences. Paradoxically, automation can actually lead to more human work in the fields in which it might have been expected to obliterate it. The introduction of UPC codes in many stores starting in the mid-1970s led to improved inventory control and increased store sales. Grocery checkout jobs thus increased. Email and e-commerce may have reduced the demand for the delivery of letters, but they have not killed off the U.S. Postal Service. In fact, e-commerce has created an entirely new category of postal jobs related to delivering items ordered online. The robots at the mail marketing company Valpak and those at the distribution centers of Amazon and other companies help keep more than 600,000 postal employees busy.


Making stuff up about TRAPPIST-1 and the Seven Dwarves


, , , ,

Unless we are captured by alien slavers and dragged there, we are not going to be around when (if) human starships reach the seven rocky dwarf planets orbiting tightly around TRAPPIST-1.  Why wait for that – when we can just make stuff up. Come on – NASA wants you to!


How NASA imagines the Seven dwarves

If you want a fictional setting for novels or role-playing games that has space travel, but you do not want the Hand-wave physics of FTL, or the sitting-in-a-can-trying-not -to-lose-your-mind-while being-baked-by-radiation reality of realistic space-flight, the recent trove of planets hugging a tiny star called TRAPPIST-1 is your answer.

TRAPPIST-1 (named for the Chilean telescope array they used to study it) is a M dwarf star, in this case about 8% of the mass of our own sun, located only 40 light years away towards the constellation Aquarius. In the fall of 2016, scientists used 500 hours of Spitzer time (an orbiting infrared telescope) to search for exoplanets and found a horde.


No less than seven were found, all in or near Trappy’s theoretical habitable zone;  the “Goldilocks Zone” where liquid water might be present. These would be very close orbits – well within the orbit of Mercury. The closest [b] has an orbital period of 1.5 days, and the farthest [h] has an orbital period of about 20 days. They are fairly close to Earth sized, only one is more than 40% removed by estimated mass. (d is pretty small at .41 – but that still makes it larger than Mars). They are all most likely tidally locked, meaning one side always faces the Trappy while the other side always faces space.

This is about all that’s known about them. Studies are planned to try and determine atmospheric composition and the like, but that’s going to  take years. Let’s make stuff up.


For your reference

Three of these worlds (e, f and g)  are in the Good Green Zone of habitation, meaning the possibility of Earth like temperatures. However, those models kinda assume the worlsd spins on an axis relative to the sun – which is not likely the case here. But, the tidal locks may mean that the dark sides of b, c and d may be cool enough, and the light side of h may be warm enough.

All of that, though, depends upon what atmospheres they have which could be anywhere from zippo like Mercury to crushing acidic greenhouse of doom like Venus.  Let’s speculate to limit some variables:

B is really close, and probably really irradiated. H is actually almost twice as far out as g, and h is the one they don’t have good mass estimates on. Let’s say both of those are barren. Let’s also go with the odds and say that tiny d doesn’t have enough atmosphere to hold a robust biosystem. That still leaves you four worlds.

Inhabitants of one of these planets could get to their nearest neighbor with not much more effort than it took us to get to the moon. We’re talking weeks – not years (as would be the case going to Mars) and that’s a far more manageable technical feat, but in terms of supplies and radiation. So whether you’re imagining human colonizers or native inhabitants or both – they could readily get to the point of back and forth between worlds.

So you could multiple sets of competing ecosystems: not only dark-side and light side, but native vs nearby world and native vs distant colonizer transplants. That’s a niches to hide weird monsters in.

If I am commanded by editorial Gods to come up with a setting based on this system, I’m actually doing a steampunk setting – except replace coal with wind – which on a tidally locked planet is both fierce and constant. Civilization might cluster arund the meridian belt seperating the light and dark side. Shadows are basically permanent; the Sun barely moves along the one horizon. On the other horizon, only clouds will hide the stars.

The entire meridian would be circumnavigated by train, of course.

That’s just the one that’s most Earth-like. That’s the one humans landed on and finally, after much struggle, seized control of. The natives then fled to the nearby planets, where they huddle together with former rivals in coalition against these new invaders for forty light years away.

Why steampunk? Humans aren’t supposed to be there. Anything as advanced as radio would give us away to Powerful Enforcers.

M dwarfs and similar stars make up 75% of known stars – they are the default, at least in our neighborhood of the galaxy. If TRAPPIST-1 is typical, we may be surrounded by more rocky neighbors than we imagine.




[photo source]

[image source]

Nature (summary)

Similar situation with a gas giant in hab zone: